This has held back progress made in other areas such as human rights or economic opportunities.
Although Ghana is one of the top 10 performers in Overall Governance in 2015, it is also the eighth most deteriorated over the course of the decade.
Ghana ranked 7th out of 54 countries in Overall Governance with a score of 63.9 out of 100. The country’s score has fallen by -2.1 points.
Ghana has improved by +46.6 points in the Digital & IT Infrastructure indicator over the course of the decade.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is the most comprehensive survey of its kind on the continent.
It rates 54 African nations against criteria such as security, human rights, economic stability, just laws, free elections, corruption, infrastructure, poverty, health and education.
Mauritius held onto its top spot, followed by Botswana, Cape Verde, the Seychelles and Namibia while South Africa – the continent’s most industrialised country – was in sixth place.
While overall the index has improved by just one point over the 10-year period starting in 2006, three out of the top 10 countries have seen their score fall in this period, and major economies like South Africa and Ghana registered some of the largest deteriorations on the continent.
The survey found that almost half of Africa’s 54 countries recorded their worst score in the past three years in the Safety & Rule of Law category, which measures personal safety, national security as well as accountability and the judicial system.
Among the top 10 overall rated countries, six had deteriorated over the past decade in that category with South Africa registering the largest decline in what researchers called a “concerning negative trend”.
The last spot on the overall index was held by Somalia, which makes up the bottom five together with South Sudan, Sudan, the Central African Republic and Libya, which showed some of the most dramatic falls since descending into anarchy following the removal of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.
The category of Sustainable Economic Opportunity – looking aspects such as public management, business environment and infrastructure – had shown a slight improvement of 1.8 points.
The rise was driven by a jump in digital and IT infrastructure, the most improved indicator in the past decade across the whole index, while roads and transport also improved.
Yet other parts of the infrastructure, such as electricity, has worsened since 2006, with South Africa showing the largest drop of all countries, losing more than 30 points.
Chronic power shortages are one of the biggest obstacles to growth in countries across Africa, with a dearth of electricity or regular blackouts strangling industries.
“Forty percent of African citizens live in a country, which has seen some deterioration and over half of Africa’s economy has been affected by this issue over the past decade,” the report found.
Looking at trajectories over the past decade, the report found that 32 countries – home to around half of Africa’s population – had seen their final score in 2015 falling below previous peak levels.
“We are really looking for a more inclusive type of government, which offers a better space for civil society and realises that civil society is there to help government, not to fight government,” said Ibrahim.
“I wish to see less violence in Africa, we need peace.”