Transport Minister Joram Gumbo justified the decision on the grounds that Mr Mugabe was a “war hero” and “African icon”.
There is tension about who will succeed the man in power since 1980, with a number of key contenders removed from their posts.
Mr Mugabe, 93, says he will stand for re-election next year.
His wife Grace has been tipped to succeed him and is expected to be appointed vice-president.
When plans to rename the airport were announced in September, Zimbabwean journalist Elias Mambo suggested the president’s ego was being “massaged”.
President Mugabe and his wife unveiled the new plaque bearing his name in a short simple ceremony.
The name change is just one of a series of events planned by the government to pay tribute the man who led the country to independence.
In August, the government announced plans to build a $1bn University named after him.
But the BBC’s Shingai Nyoka in Harare says Zimbabweans are divided over the name change at the airport, and the opposition has described it as an insult.
President Mugabe thanked the government on behalf of his family, which he said “is not just my wife and the children it is the whole country”.
Our correspondent says that Zimbabwe was once southern Africa’s aviation hub.
Critics say because of Mr Mugabe’s economic policies, the once vibrant airport is now a shadow of its former self.
An Entrepreneur and Philanthropist. Editor-in-Chief of www.233times.com. A Senior Journalist with Ghanaian Chronicle Newspaper. An alumnus of Adisadel College where he read General Arts. He holds first degree in Bachelor of Arts from the University of Ghana; Political Science (major) and History (minor). He has also pursued MSc Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Energy with Public Relations (PR) at the Robert Gordon University in the United Kingdom. He is a 2018 Mandela Washington Fellow (YALI) who studied at Clark Atlanta University on the Business and Entrepreneurship track. His mentors are Rupert Murdoch, Warren Buffet, Sam Jonah, Kwaku Sakyi Addo and Piers Morganview all posts by: Nana Kwesi Coomson
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